Gender socialization

From birth onwards, girls and boys are exposed to a myriad of daily experiences and messages that tell them what it means to be a boy or a girl in their particular cultural context. From how they are talked to and held by their parents, the toys and clothes that they are given, to subtle and blatant gendered messages present in commercial products and media: they all contribute to the intergenerational transmission of gender norms. In this research program, my team and I investigate the nature and effects of such gendered socialization patterns on child development. The main studies in this program are funded by my ERC-Starting Grant and ERC-Consolidator Grant. In addition to scholarly work, I am also active in outreach activities, and promoting gender equity in academia.

Dutch tags: gender, jongens, meisjes, opvoeding, boeken, media, speelgoed

Featured publications

Gender in textbooks

Analysis of ca.13.000 characters in textbooks for 12-year-olds for Dutch and math show underrepresentation of women and subtle gender stereotyping. The report is in Dutch, but an English research paper is on its way!  


Review gendered parenting

Mesman, J., & Groeneveld, M. G. (2018). Gendered parenting in early childhood: Subtle but unmistakable when you know where to look. Child Development Perspectives, 12(1), 22-27. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12250

Gendered family processes 

Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M. G., & Mesman, J. (2018). Introducing the gendered family process model: An integrative framework of gender in the family. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(4), 877-904. doi: 10.1007/s10508-018-1185-8

Featured events and initiatives 

ERC online event

In November 2020, I presented at the ERC event on sex and gender dimensions in research.  The event aimed at creating a platform to showcase and discuss innovative approaches to address gender dimensions in research. 


Athena's Angels

Athena's Angels was founded in 2015 by Eveline Crone, Naomi Ellemers, Ineke Sluiter, and myself. The mission of Athena’s Angels is to promote equal opportunities for men and women 

 in academia through increasing awareness of bias, and highlighting best practices. 

Public Event (in Dutch)

At an event for the general public organized by NEMO Kennislink, I spoke to Desiree Hoving en Geertje Mak about gender roles in society, and how these start in childhood.

   
 


Publications on gender socialization


Mesman, J., Van den Rozenberg, T., Van Veen, P.D., Zicha, L., Groeneveld, M.G. (2019).  Representatie en stereotypering van vrouwen en mannen  in schoolboeken voor de brugklas. Rapport voor uitgeversorganisatie de GEU.

De Vries E.E., Van der Pol L.D., Vermeer H.J., Groeneveld M.G., Fiers T. & Mesman J. (2019), Testosterone and Fathers' Parenting Unraveled: Links with the Quantity and Quality of Father-Child Interactions, Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology 5: 297–316.

Van der Pol, L., Groeneveld, M. G., Van Berkel, S., Endendijk, J. J., Halers-Haalboom, E. T., Mesman, J., (2019). Fathers: The interplay between testosterone levels and self-control in relation to parenting quality. Hormones and Social Behavior, 112, 100-116. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.04.003

Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M. G., & Mesman, J. (2018). Introducing the gendered family process model: An integrative framework of gender in the family. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(4), 877-904. doi: 10.1007/s10508-018-1185-8

Endendijk, J. J., Derks, B., & Mesman, J. (2018). Does parenthood change implicit gender-role stereotypes and behaviors? Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(1), 61-79. doi:10.1111/jomf.12451

Mesman, J., & Groeneveld, M. G. (2018). Gendered parenting in early childhood: Subtle but unmistakable when you know where to look. Child Development Perspectives, 12(1), 22-27. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12250

Endendijk, J. J., Derks, B, & Mesman, J. (2018). Welke gevolgen heeft het ouderschap voor de genderrolstereotypen en rolpatronen van ouders? Mens en Maatschappij, 93, 165-168. doi:10.5117/MEM2018.2.INDE

Van Berkel, S. R., Groeneveld, M. G., Van der Pol, L. D., Endendijk, J. J., Hallers-Haalboom, E.T., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2017). No! Don't touch the toys: Preschoolers' discipline towards their younger siblings. Infant and Child Development, 26(6). doi:10.1002/icd.2031

Garfield, C. F., & Mesman, J, (2016). Time and money: Extending fathers’ role in economically challenging contexts. Pediatrics, 138, e20162456.  doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2456. (invited commentary)

Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Mesman, J. (2016). Gender-differentiated parenting revisited: Meta-analysis reveals very few differences in parental control of boys and girls. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159193.DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0159193

Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M., Van der Pol, L. D., Van Berkel, S. R., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J, & Mesman, J. (2016). Gender differences in child aggression: Relations with gender-differentiated parenting and parents’ gender-role stereotypes. Child Development, 88(1), 299–316. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12589

Van der Pol, L. D., Groeneveld, M. G., Endendijk, J. J., Van Berkel, S. R., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T.,  Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2016). Associations between fathers’ and mothers’ psychopathology symptoms, parental emotion socialization, and preschoolers’ social-emotional development. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(11), 3367-3380. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0490-x

Endendijk, J. J., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Groeneveld, M., Van Berkel, S. R., Van der Pol, L. D., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J, & Mesman, J. (2016). Diurnal testosterone variability is differentially associated with parenting quality in mothers and fathers. Hormones and Behavior, 80, 68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.01.016

Mesman, J. & Vermeer, H. (2016). Vaders en moeders als opvoeders van jongens en meisjes. In: M.H. van IJzendoorn, & L. van Rosmalen (Eds). Pedagogiek in beeld. Een inleiding in de pedagogische studie van opvoeding, onderwijs en hulpverlening (pp. 115-126). Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum

Van der Pol, L. D., Mesman, J., Groeneveld, M. G., Endendijk, J. E., Van Berkel, S. R., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2015). Sibling gender configuration and family processes. Journal of Family Issues, 37(15), 2095-2117. doi: 10.1177/0192513X15572369

Van der Pol, L. D., Groeneveld, M. G., Van Berkel, S. R., Endendijk, J. E., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Mesman, J. (2015). Fathers’ and mothers’ emotion talk with their girls and boys from toddlerhood to preschool age. Emotion, 15(6), 854-864. doi: 10.1037/emo0000085

Van Berkel, S. R., Groeneveld, M. G., Mesman, J., Endendijk J. J., Hallers-Haalboom E. T., Van der Pol, L. D., & Bakermans-Kranenburg M. J. (2015). Parental sensitivity towards toddlers and infant siblings predicting toddler sharing and compliance. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(8), 2270-2279. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-0029-y

Van Berkel, S. R., Van der Pol, L. D., Groeneveld, M. G., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Endendijk, J. J., Mesman, J., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2015). To share or not to share: Parental, sibling, and situational influences on sharing with a younger sibling. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 39(3), 235-241. doi:10.1177/0165025414537925.

Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Groeneveld, M., Van Berkel, S. R., Endendijk, J. J., Van der Pol, L. D., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J, & Mesman, J. (2015). Wait until your mother gets home! Mothers’ and fathers’ discipline strategies. Social Development, 25(1), 82-98. doi: 10.1111/sode.12130

Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M. G., Mesman, J., Van der Pol, L. D., Van Berkel, S. R., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2014). Boys don’t play with dolls: Mothers’ and fathers’ gender talk during picture book reading. Parenting: Science and Practice, 14(3-4), 141-161. doi: 10.1080/15295192.2014.972753

Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Mesman, J., Groeneveld, M. G., Endendijk, J. J., Van Berkel, S. R., Van der Pol, L. D., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2014). Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: Parental sensitivity in families with two children. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(2), 138-147. doi: 10.1037/a0036004

Endendijk, J. J., Groeneveld, M., Van Berkel, S. R., Hallers-Haalboom, E. T., Mesman, J., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2013). Gender stereotypes in the family context: Mothers, fathers, and siblings. Sex Roles, 68(9), 577-590. doi: 10.1007/s11199-013-0265-4.